Taryn Manning on the ability of an individual to make sound decisions, to find the right or at least good answers to difficult and important life questions, and to give advice about the complex problems of everyday life and interpersonal relationships. The role of knowledge and life experience and the importance of applying knowledge toward a com- mon good through balancing one’s own, others’, and institutional interests are two perspectives that have received significant psychological study. wisdom of crowds the gain in accuracy achieved when many individuals’ estimates are averaged. The phenomenon was first identified by Francis GALTON after he examined the responses of contestants attempting to judge the weight of an ox; the average of all of these independent estimates was more accurate than were the individual estimates of experts. wish n. 1. in classical psychoanalytic theory, the psychological manifestation of a biological instinct that operates on a conscious or unconscious level. Taryn Manning 2016.